The Inguinal Canal and Groin Region (Notes by Konstantin Ravvin)

Posted in Medical Notes with tags , , , , , on March 26, 2016 by Konstantin


The inguinal canal is perhaps the most commonly encountered anatomical region in a medical student’s career.  It’s highly emphasized almost universally across all curriculums due to its distinction as a major hub for vascular and reproductive features as well as a major site for disease pathogenesis.  Please see the notes below:

Inguinal Region and Spermatic Cord

  • The fetal testes descending down the gubernaculum during embryonic development and descend into an outward picket of peritoneum called process vaginalis à ultimately ending up in the scrotum
  • The inguinal canal is the path that the testes follow out of the abdomen which lies parallel to the inguinal ligament. It is formed from a fold f the external oblique fascia and contains
    • Males: spermatic cord
      • Contains: ductus deferens + artery, testicular artery, pampiniform venous plexus
      • Clinical Note: The left teste is always lower than the right due to differences in venous flowout of the right and left kidney. A left teste that hangs too low may indicate a problem with kidney
    • Females: round ligament of uterus
  • The openings of the inguinal canal are:
    • Internal: deep ring
    • External: superficial ring
  • The walls of the inguinal canal
    • Posterior: fascia transversalis
      • Conjoint tendon: merger between aponeuroses of internal oblique and transverse abdominus
    • Anterior: external oblique aponeurosis
    • Roof: fascia trasnversalis and abdominal muscles
    • Floor: iliopubic tract, inguinal ligament, lacunar ligament
  • Muscles that move testes
    • Dartos Muscle is a smooth muscle that contracts to move the testes
    • External spermatic fascia is a continuation of the external oblique muscle
    • Cremaster muscle is a skeletal muscle that contracts tomovethe testes up. It is the continuation of the internal oblique. Innervated by ilioinguinal nerve.
  • Tunica vaginalis is the extension of the peritoneum into the testes
  • Sensory innervation isprovided by the genitofemoral nerve.
  • Clinical Note: In children, hernia most often involved the inguinal canal because it is weaker than the rest of the abdomen. In adults, they can happen anywhere
    • Indirect hernia: a protrusion within spermatic cord into scrotum in the lateral region of inguinal canal.
    • Direct hernia: an abdominal organ pushes out through the inguinal canal, but NOT through spermatic cord in the medial region of the spermatic cord.

Konstantin Ravvin 


Esophagus, Stomach, Duodenum and Intestines Medical Notes by Konstantin Ravvin

Posted in Medical Notes with tags , , , , , , , on February 25, 2016 by Konstantin




  • Associated with the esophagus, as it enters the abdominal cavity, are the anterior are the anterior and posterior vagal trunks
    • Anterior vagal trunk: consists of vagal trunks that mainly come from the left vagus
    • Posterior vagal trunk: consists of vagal trunks that mainly come from the right vagus
  • Arterial supply of the esophagus includes:
    • Esophageal branch of left gastric artery (from celiac trunk)
    • Esophageal branch of left inferior phrenic artery (from abdominal aorta)




  • Divided into four regions:
    • Cardia: surrounds the opening of the esophagus into the stomach
    • Fundus: area above the level of the cardial orifice
    • Body of stomach: largest region of the stomach
    • Pyloric part: divided into antrum and canal at the distal end of the stomach (all below the angular incisures)
  • Most distal portion of the pyloric part is called the pylorus – marked by the pyloric constriction and contains a thickened ring of gastric circular muscle, the pyloric sphincter that surrounds the distal opening of the stomach, the pyloric orifice.
  • Other features of the stomach include:
    • Greater curvature, lesser curvature, cardiac notch (created from esophagus entering the stomach), and angular incisure (bend on the lesser curvature)
  • Arterial supply of the stomach
    • Left gastric artery from the celiac trunk
    • Right gastric artery from the hepatic artery proper
    • Right gastro-omental artery from gastro-duodenal artery
    • Left gastro-omental artery from splenic artery
    • Posterior gastric artery from gastric artery


Small Intestine


  • Extends from gastrointestinal tract to ileocecal fold
  • Approximately 6-7 m long
  • Duodenum: adjacent to the head of the pancreas and above the umbilicus; its lumen is the widest of the small intestine
    • Is retroperitoneal with the exception of its beginning, which is connected to the liver by the hepatoduodenal ligament (part of lesser omentum).
    • Divided into four parts:
      • Superior part: pyloric orifice à neck of gallbladder. Is just to the right of the body of vertebra LI, and passes anteriorly to the bile duct, gastroduodenal artery, portal vein, and inferior vena cava
        • Clinical Note: most duodenal ulcers occur here.
      • Descending part: right of the midline. Extends from neck of gallbladder to the lower border of L3. Anterior surface is crossed by the transverse colon, posterior to it is the right kidney, and medial to it is the head of the pancreas.
        • Contains the entrance of the bile duct (duodenal papilla) and the pancreatic ducts (minor duodenal papilla)
      • Inferior part: longest section, crossing the inferior vena cava, the aorta and the vertebral column. Crossed anteriorly by the superior mesenteric artery and vein.
      • Ascending part: passes upward on, or to the left of, the aorta to approximately the upper border of L2 and terminates and the duodenojejunal flexure
    • Arterial supply of duodenum:
      • Branches of the gastroduodenal artery
      • Supraduodenal artery from the gastroduodenal artery
      • Duodenal branches from the anterior superior pancreaticuduodenal artery.
      • Duodenal branches from the posterior superior pancreaticuduodenal artery.
      • Duodenal branches from the anterior inferior pancreaticuduodenal artery.
      • First jejunal branch from the superior mesenteric artery.
    • Jejunum: proximal two-fifths of the small intestine and is larger in diameter and has a thicker wall than the ileum.
    • Arterial supply of jejunum: jejunal arteries from the superior mesenteric artery
    • Ileum: makes up the distal three-fifths of the small intestine. Smller in diameter and thinner walls than jejunum with more mesenteric fat and more arterial arcades (connections)
      • Two flaps projecting into the lumen of the large intestine (the ileocecal fold) surround the opening. They come together to form ridges. Musculature from the ileum continues into each flap, forming a sphincter.
        • Possible function of iliocecal fold includes preventing reflux from the cecum to the ileum.
      • Arteries supplying the ileum:
        • Ileal arteries of superior mesenteric artery
        • Ileal branch of the ileocolic artery
      • Clinical note: differences in epithelial cells exists between the stomach and the esophagus at the gastroesophageal junction. Absence of this difference may predispose the region to adenocarcinoma.
    • Clinical Note: duodenal ulcers can be posterior or anterior.
      • Posterior ulcers: erode onto the gastroduodenal artery or onto the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, which can produce hemorrhage.
      • Anterior duodenal artery erode into the peritoneal cavity, causing peritonitis. This can cause the ileus to adhere to the greater omentum — attempting to seal off the perforation
    • Clinical Note: Meckel’s diverticulum
      • Proximal part of the yolk stalk (vitelline duct) remains. Can cause hemorrhage, diverticulitis, ulceration and obstruction
    • Clinical Note: Carcinoma of the stomach
      • Can be caused by chronic gastric inflammation, pernicious anemia, and polyps.


Large Intestine


  • Extends from the distal end of the ileum to the anus ( ~1.5 m)
  • Aborbs fluids and salts from the gut contents and forms feces.
  • Cecum à Ascending colon à right colic flexure à transverse colon à left colic flexure à discending colon àsigmoid colon
  • Larger diameter compared to that of the small intestine
  • Omental appendices: peritoneal-covered accumulations of fat
  • Longitudinal muscle in its walls are segmented into three narrow bands called the taenaie coli (primarily in the cecum and colon)
  • The sacculations of the colon are called huastra
  • Cecum and Appendix:
    • Cecum is intraperitoneal and is usually in contact with anterior abdominal wall
    • Appendix is attached to the posterior medial wall and it is suspended from the terminal ileum by the mesoappendix.
  • Clinical Note: Appendix
    • The surface projection of the base of the appendix is at the junction of the lateral and middle one-third of a line from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus (McBurney’s Point), where people with appendicitis describe the pain
    • Arterial supply to appendix: not high yield
  • Colon:
    • Ascending and descending sequences are retroperitoneal
    • Transverse and sigmoid segments are intraperitoneal.
    • Left colic flexure between ascending and transverse colon is inferior to the spleen
    • Right colic flexure between transverse and descending colon is just inferior lobe of the liver
    • Immediately lateral to the ascending and descending colons are the right and left paracolic gutters
      • Clinical Note: Because major vessels and lymphatics are on the medial to the ascending/descending colon, a relatively blood-free mobilization of the ascending/descending colon is possible by cutting the peritoneum along these lateral paracolic gutters.
    • Blood supply to ascending colon (ileocolic and superior mesenteric):
      • Colic branch of iloecolic artery
      • Anterior cecal artery from the ileocolic artery
      • Posterior cecal artery from the ileocolic artery
      • Right colic artery from the superior mesenteric artery
    • Blood supply to the transverse colon: (superior mesenteric artery)
      • Right colic artery from the superior mesenteric artery
      • Middle colic artery from the superior mesenteric artery
      • Left colic artery from the superior mesenteric artery
    • Blood supply to the descending colon: (inferior mesenteric artery)
      • Left colic artery from inferior mesenteric artery
    • Blood supply to the sigmoid colon: (inferior mesenteric artery)
      • Sigmoidal arteries from inferior mesenteric artery
    • Rectum and Anal Canal
      • Rectum is a retroperitoneal structure
      • The anal canal is a continuation of the large intestine inferior to the rectum
      • Arterial supply: low yield
    • Clinical note: Malrotation is incomplete rotation and fixation of the midgut after it has passed from the umbilical sac and returned to the abdominal coelom
      • If the duodenojejunal flexure or the cecum does not end up in its usual site, the origin of the small bowel mesentery shortens, which permits twisting of the small bowel around the axis of the superior mesenteric artery. Twisting of the bowel is termed volvulus, which may lead to lead to reduction of blood flow and infarction.
    • Clinical Note: Bowel obstruction
      • Mechanical obstruction is caused by intraluminal, mural or extrinsic mass which can be secondary to a foreign body, obstructing tumor in the wall or extrinsic compression from an adhesion.
      • Functional obstruction is usually due to an inability of the bowel to perstalse and is mostly likely caused by a postsrugcial state due to excessive intraoperative bowel handling.

Anterior abdominal wall & inguinal canal & Peritoneum (Konstantin Ravvin)

Posted in February 2012, Medical Notes with tags , , , , , , , , , on February 22, 2016 by Konstantin

Gray’s Anatomy Notes Accompanied by Dissection

Superficial fascia of the abdomen

  • Layer of fatty connective tissue
  • Is a single layer that is continuous with the superficial fascia throughout the body, however below the umbilicus , it forms two layers: a superficial fatty layer and a deeper membranous layer
  • Camper’s Fascia: superficial fatty layer of superficial layer contains fat and varies in thickness
    • Continuous over inguinal ligament with the superficial fascia of the thigh and with similar layer in the perineum
  • Scarpa’s Facia: thin and membranous; contains little or no fat
    • Just below the inguinal ligmanet, it fuses with the deep fascia of the thigh
    • In the midline, it is firmly attached to the linea alba and the symphysis pubis. It continues into the anterior part of the perineum where it firmly attaches to the ischiopubic rami and to the posterior margin of the perineal membrane (referred to as Colle’s fascia)


Anterolateral Muscles


  • Three flat muscles whose fibers begin posterolaterally, pass anteriorly and are replaced by an aponeurosis as the muscle continues towards the midline
    • External oblique, internal obliqUe and transversus abdominis muscle.
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    • Two vertical muscles, near the midline, which are enclosed within a tendinous sheat formed by the aponeurosis of the flat muscles
      • Rectus abdominis and pyramidalis muscle
        • RA, PM
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        • All of these muscles form a firm and flexible wall that keeps the abdominal viscera within the abdominal cavity
        • Contraction of these muscles assists in both quiet and forced expiration ( by pushing the viscera upwards and in coughing/vomiting) in addition to childbirth, urination and defection.
        • External Oblique (innervated by anterior rami of lower six thoracic spinal nerves T7 to T12): most superficial of all flat muscles (3).
          • Immediately deep to the superficial fascia
          • Its laterally placed muscle fibers pass in an inferomedial direction, while its large aponeurotic component covers the anterior part of the abdominal wall to the midline forming the linea alba which extends from the xiphoid process to the public symphysis.
          • Lower border of the external oblique aponeurosis forms the inguinal ligament on each side, which passes between the anterior superior iliac spine laterally and the pubic tubercle medially.
            • From the inguinal ligament, we have several extensions:
              • the lacunar ligament at the medial end that passes backwards to attach to the pectin pubis on the superior ramus of the pubic bone.
              • From the lacunar ligament, along the pectin pubis, we have Cooper’s ligament
            • Internal oblique (Anterior rami of lower six thoracic spinal nerves T7 to T12 and L1): is smaller and thinner than its external counterpart and passes into the superomedial direction (up and to the middle). Its aponeurosis blends into the linea alba at the midline
            • Transversus abdominis (Anterior rami of lower six thoracic spinal nerves T7 to T12 and L1): deepest of all three flat muscles. It ends in an anterior aponeurosis, which blends with the linea alba at the midline
            • Transversalis fascia : a fascia covers all three of the flat muscles anteriorly and posteriorly. The one posterior to the transversus abdominis muscle is the transversalis fascia, which lines the abdominal cavity and continues into the pelvic cavity
            • Rectus Abdominis (Anterior rami of lower six thoracic spinal nerves T7 to T12): long flat muscle that extends the length of the anterior abdominal wall. It is separated at the midline by the linea alba, and it widens and thins as it ascends from the pubic symphysis to the costal margin. Along its course, it is intersected by three or four transvers fibrous bands or tendinous intersections.
            • Pyramidalis (Anterior ramus of T12): triangle muscle, which may be absent, is anterior to the rectus abdominis, has its base on the pubis, and its apex is attached superiorly and medially to the linea alba, and it widens and thins as it ascends from the pubic symphysis to the costal margin.   Along its course, it is intersected by three or four transverse fibrous bands or tendinous intersections. Its apex is attached superiorly and medially to the linea alba.
            • Rectus Sheath: a tendinous sheat formed by a unique layering of the aponeuroses of the external and internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles
              • It encloses the upper ¾ of the rectus abdominis and covers the anterior surface of the lower ¼ of the muscle. There is no sheath covering theposterior surface of the lower quarter, so the muscle connects directly with the transversalis fascia.
              • The formation of the rectus sheat surrounding the upper ¾ of the rectus abdominis muscle has the following pattern:
                • Anterior wall: aponeurosis of the external oblique and half of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique, which splits at the lateral margin of the rectus abdominus
                • Posterior wall: consists of the other half of the internal oblique aponeurosis and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis
                • At a point between the umbilicus and pubic symphysis, all aponeuroses move anterior to the rectus muscle – from this point, the rectus abdominis muscle is in direct contact with the transversalis fascia marking the arcuate line.
                  • Arcuate line: where rectus sheath ends all that covers the rectus abdominis muscle is the transversalis fascia


Extraperitoneal Fascia


  • Deep to the fascia transversalis – essentially separates it from the peritoneum and lines the abdominal cavity
  • Continues over organs covered by peritoneal reflections — and extends into mesenteries with the blood vessels
  • Clinical note: in description of specific surgical procedures, the terminology used to describe the extraperitoneal fascia is further modified: the fascia towards the anterior side of the body is preperitoneal and towards the posterior side is




  • Deep to the extraperitoneal fascia is the peritoneum. The peritoneum lining the body wall is parietal and the peritoneum covering the viscera is the visceral peritoneum.
  • The sac formed in the peritoneum (peritoneal sac) is closed in men but has two openings in women where the uterine tubes provide a passage to the outside.
  • Innervation:
    • parietal peritoneum of the anterolateral abdominal wall (T7 to T12 and L1) — these nerves pass from the posterior to anterior, in an inferomedial direction (down and to the middle) then give off the lateral cutaneous branch and end as an anterior cutaneous branch.
    • Intercostal nerves (T7 to T11) pass deep to the costal cartilages and continue onto the anterolateral abdominal wall between the internal oblique and trasnversus abdominis muscles. They enter the rectus sheath and pass to the posterior aspect of the rectus abdominis muscle – approaching the midline, an anterior cutaneous branch passes through the rectus abdominis muscle and the anterior wall of the rectus sheath to supply the skin. Spinal nerve T12 (subcostal nerve) follows similar course.
    • Branches of L1 (iliohypogastric and ilio-inguinal nerve) originate from the lumbar plexus follow a similar course but deviate from this patern near their final destination.
    • All nerves terminate by supplying the skin
    • Nerves T7-79: skin from the xiphoid process to just above the umbilicus
    • T10: skin around the umbilicus
    • T11,T12,L1: below umbilicus to the pubic region (inclusive)
    • Ilioinguinal nerve: supplies the anterior surface of the scrotum or labia majora, and sends a small cutaneous branch to the thigh


Arterial Supply and Venous Drainage


  • Musculophrenic artery (terminal branch of internal thoracic artery): superior part of the abdominal wall
  • Superficial epigastric artery supplies the medial side (branch of femoral artery)
  • Superficial circumflex iliac artery supplies the lateral side (branch of femoral artery)
  • At a deeper level:
  • Superior epigastric artery supplies the superior part (branch of internal thoracic artery)
  • 10th and 11th intercostal + subcostal artery supplies the lateral side
  • Inferior epigastric artery and deep circumflex iliac artery (branches of external iliac artery) supply the inferior.
  • Superior and inferior epigastric arteries both enter the rectus posterior to the rectus abdominis muscle throughout their course, and anastomose with each other.


Lymphatic drainage





  • The junction between the abdominal wall and the thigh quite susceptible to inguinal hernia
  • Peritoneal outpunching in abdominal wall eventually forms testes/ovaries, protruding through the various layers of the anterior abdominal wall and acquiring coverings from each
    • The transversalis fascia forms its deepes covering, followed by musculature of internal oblique and the most external covering is the aponeurosis of the external oblique
    • This structure forms into a tubular structure knows as the inguinal canal.
  • Processus vaginalis
  • In men, the accompanying vessels, ducts, and nerves pass through the inguinal canal and are therefore surrounded by the same fascial layers of the abdominal wall, forming the spermatic cord
  • In women, the overaies descend into the pelvic caity and become associated with the developing uterus – therefore the only relevant structure passing through the inguinal canal is the round ligament of uterus.

Inguinal Canal


  • Begins at the deep inguinal ring and continues for approximately 4 cm, ending at the superficial inguinal ring.
    • Contents: genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, the spermatic cord in men and the round ligament of the uterus in women. Additionally the ilio-inguinal nerve passes through part of the canal


Deep Inguinal Ring


  • Beginning of the inguinal canal and is midway point between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic symphysis
  • Just above the inguinal ligament and is the beginning of the tubular evagination of transversalis fascia that forms one of the coverings of the spermatic cord in men and round ligament in women.


Superficial Inguinal Ring


  • End of the inguinal canal
  • The triangular opening of the aponeurosis of the external oblique
  • Ends of the triangle are the medial and lateral crus and are attached to the pubic symphysis and the pubic tubercle, respectively; prevent widening of the superficial ring.


Anterior Wall of Inguinal Canal


  • Formed along its entire length by the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle.
  • Reinfroced laterally by the lower fibers of the internal oblique, which contributes a layer to to the deep inguinal ring (cremasteric muscle/fascia)


Posterior Wall of Inguinal Canal


  • Formed by the transversalis fascia
  • Reinforced along medial one-third by the conjoint tendon ( a combined tendon of the transversus abdominis and internal oblique)


Roof of Inguinal Canal


  • Formed by arching fibers of the transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscles


Floor of the Inguinal Canal


  • Medial ½ of the inguinal ligament
  • Lowest part of the aponeurosis of the external oblique. Forms the trough on which the contents of the inguinal canal are position.
  • The lacunar ligament reinforces most of the medial part of the trough.


Contents of Inguinal Canal


  • The spermatic cord in men
  • The round ligament of the uterus and genital branch of the genitofemral nerve in women
  • Ilio-inguinal nerve enters the theinguinal canal and continues down the canal to exit through the superficial inguinal ring.
  • All structures enter through the deep inguinal ring and exit through the superficial inguinal ring.


Spermatic Cord


  • Begins proximally at the deep inguinal ring and consists of structures passing between the abdominopelvic cavities and the testis, and the three fascial coverings that enclose these structures. Structures of spermatic cord:
    • Ductus deferers (+ artery), testicular artery, pampiniform plexus of veins, cremasteric artery and vein, genital branch of genitofemoral nerve, sympathetic and visceral afferent nerve fibers.
  • Structures acquire the three fascial coverings during their journey:
    • Internal spermatic fascia (deepest) arises from transversalis fascia
    • Cremaster fascia associated with cremasteric muscle
    • External spermatic fascia (superficial covering of the spermatic cord); arises from the aponeurosis of external oblique


Round Ligament of Uterus


  • Passes from the uterus to the deep inguinal ring where it enteres the iguinal canal
  • Exists through the superficial inguinal ring
  • As it traversus through the inguinal canal, it acquires the same coverings as the spermatic cord in men.
  • Continues to the ovary as the ligament of the overy.
  • Clinical Note: cremaster muscle and fascia form the middle covering of the spermatic cord (supplied by genitofermoral nerve)
    • Cremaster reflex: gentle touch at and around the skin of the medial aspect of the superior part of the thigh stimulates the sensory fibers of the ilio-inguinal nerve à sensory fibers to L1 à response from motor fibers of genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve
  • Clinical note:
    • Indirect Inguinal Hernia: peritoneal sac enters the inguinal canal by passing through the deep inguinal ring just lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels
      • Congenital in origin
    • Indirect Inguinal Hernia: peritoneal sac enters the medial end of the inguinal canal directly through a weakened posterior wall
      • Does not traverse the entire length of the inguinal canal
      • Is acquired and develops when abdominal musculature has weakened
      • Bulging occurs medial to the inferior epigastric vessels in the inguinal (Hasselbach’s) triangle bounded laterally by the inferior epigastric artery, medially by the rectus abdominis muscle and inferiorly by the inguinal ligament.
    • Clinical Note: Determining Masses Around Groin
      • The key to groin examination is determining the location of the inguinal ligament
        • Passes between the anterior superior iliac spine laterally and the pubic tubercle medially.
        • Inguinal hernias are above the inguinal ligament and are usually apparent upon standing
        • Scrotal masses in men, in tandem with the inability to feel its upper edge suggests that it may originate from the inguinal canal and might be a hernia. Upon coughing, the lump bulges outwardly
        • Inguinal hernia location: through superficial inguinal ring above the pubic tubercle
        • Femoral hernia location: through the femoral canal below and lateral to the pubic tubercle. Usually acquired.
        • Umbilical hernia: result from the failure of the small bowel to return to the abdominal cavity from the umbilical cord during development
        • Incisional hernias: occur from a defect in a scar of a previous abdominal operation
        • Spigelian hernia: passes upward from the arcuate line into the lateral border at the lower part of the posterior rectus sheath.











  • A thin membrane lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and covers much of the viscera. Between the parietal and visceral layers of peritoneum is a potential space (peritoneal cavity)
    • Abdominal organs are either suspended in peritoneal cavity by folds of peritoneum (mesenteries) or are outside the peritoneal cavity.
    • Innervation:
      • Parietal peritoneum: somatic afferents carried in branches of the associated spinal nerves; sensitive to well-localized pain.
      • Visceral peritoneum: visceral afferents that accompany autonomic nerves (sympathetic and parasympathetic). Activation can lead to referred and poorly localized sensations of discomfort,and to reflex visceral motor activity


Peritoneal Cavity


  • Subdivided into greater sac and omental bursa
    • Greater sac accounts for most of the space, beginning superiorly at the diaphgragm and continuing inferiorly into the pelvic cavity (you enter it as you penetrate the parietal peritoneum).
    • Omental Bursa: smaller subdivision of the periteoneal cavity posterior to the stomach and liver and is continuous with the greater sac through an opening called the omental foramen
      • Surrounding the omental (epiploic) foramen are
        • Anteriorly: the portal vein, hepatic artery proper, and bile duct d
        • Posteriorly: vena cava
        • Superiorly: caudate liver of the lobe
        • Inferiorly: first part of the duodenum
      • Clinical Note:
        • Ventriculoperitoneal shunts: excessive CSF in the cerebral ventricular system.   Clinical drainage requires a fine-bore catheter through the skull into the cerebral ventricles and placing the extracranial part of the tube beneath the scalp and skin of the chest wall and passing it to the peritoneal cavity from where it is drained.
        • Peritoneal Dialysis: peritoneum is used as dialysis membrane — a small tube is inserted from the abdominal wall and dialysis fluid is injected into the peritoneal cavity. Electrolytes and molecules are exchanged aross the peritoneum between the fluid and blood.
        • Peritoneal spread of disease: if malignant cells enter the peritoneal cavity by direct invasion, spread may be rapid. It can also act as a barrier to contain the disease

Omenta, mesenteries and ligaments


  • Throughout peritoneal cavity numerous peritoneal folds connect organs to each other or to the abdominal wall. They are known as omenta, mesenteries and ligaments.
    • They develop from the original dorsal and ventral mesenteries, which suspend the developing gastrointestinal tract in the embryonic coelomic cavity
  • Omenta: consists of two layers of peritoneum, which pass from the stomach and the first part of the duodenum to other viscera.
    • Greater Omentum: derived from dorsal mesentery
      • Attaches to the greater curvature of the stomach and first part of duodenum
      • Drapes over transverse colon and the coils of the jejunum and ileum
      • It associates with the peritoneum on the superior surface of the transverse colon and the anterior layer of the transverse mesocolon before arriving at the posterior abdominal wall
      • Usually contains an accumulation of fat
      • Contains right and left gastro-omental vessels.
      • Clinical Note: when a laparotomy is performed and the peritoneal cavity is opened, the first structure usually encountered is the greater omentum.
        • An important site for metastatic tumors
      • Lesser Omentum: derived from the ventral mesentery
        • Extends from lesser curvature of the stomach and the first part of the duodenum to the inferior surface of the liver
        • Divided into:
          • Medial hepatogastric ligament
            • Passes between stomach and liver
          • Hepatoduodenal ligament
            • Passes between duodenum and liver
          • Mesenteries: attach viscera to the posterior abdominal wall.
            • The mesentery: associated with parts of the small intestine
              • Connects the jejunum and ileum to the posterior abdominal wall
              • Attaches superiorly at the duodenojejunal junction
              • Ends at the ileocecal junction
              • Incases the arteries, veins , nerves and lymphatics that supply the jejunum and ileum.
            • The transverse mesocolon: associated with the transverse colon
              • connects transverse colon to the posterior abdominal wall
              • Traverses the head and body of the pancreas and surround the transverse colon.
              • Incases the arteries, veins, nerves and lymphatics that supply the transverse mesocolon
            • The sigmoid mesocolon: associated with the sigmoid colon
              • Attaches the sigmoid colon to the abdominal wall
              • Shaped in a V whose apex is near the division of the left common iliac artery and divides it into its internal and external branches, with the left limb of the V along the medial border of the left psoas major muscle and the right limb descending into the pelvis to end at the level of vertebra S3.

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A Good Philosophy to Live By

Posted in Thoughts with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 28, 2012 by Konstantin


Over the course of my short-life, I’ve made it a habit being skeptical to the point of cynicism. Often times, people define themselves not by what they believe in, but what they have rejected.

Morality, whether we choose to believe it or not, is relative.  Some need a higher power to solidify their moral compass, others tend to rely on societal and post-conventional cues.  Regardless of affiliation, we all have a guiding principle that helps us differentiate between right and wrong.  My personal strategy for distinguishing between the two lies in one simple rule of thumb:

Any belief that implicitly produces inequity between a group of people [whether by lifestyle choice, faith, or physical composition] is inherently flawed.

Is what I believe the absolute truth?  Certainly not.  But it sets a standard whereby equality is judging two separate individuals by the same standard and it has never failed me.

-Konstantin Ravvin

Being Wrong is an Essential Part of Getting it Right

Posted in Thoughts with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 28, 2012 by Konstantin


Being wrong is an essential part of finding the correct answer.


Economics is at its core the study of incentives, choices and their consequences.  It is of paramount importance to understand that theories, conjectures and models associated with something so ambiguous are never set in stone.

During my understudy years at the University of Central Florida, I took a course which required the completion of an empirical study between variables.  I relished in the allure of autonomy; being able to create my own study, with variables of my own choosing. But of course I knew that my findings, no matter how convincing, would be subject to drawbacks.

When it came time to present, I noted something uniform about the students that preceded me: there were no mentions of ‘drawbacks’, no evidence to the contrary, not even subtle hints of fallacy.  Of course, it wasn’t because the students were confident in the accuracy of their work, nor was it their arrogance or stubbornness; it had a lot to do with the lack of emphasis on ‘being wrong’.

Statistically speaking, confidence intervals, reliability measurements and correlation coefficients do not tell the whole story.  These are all valid mathematical instruments designed to insulate against statistical error, but when such error exists [and it is inevitable], we cannot undermine its importance.

There are two types of wrongs: 1) Factual 2) Moral.  

The latter is more hotly contested than the former by virtue of its vagueness and subjectivity.

In hard science [that is the science based on empirical evidence, mathematical deduction of discrete values, and adherence to the laws of nature] precision is a function of trial and error; meticulous experimentations whereby hypothesis are disproven and knowledge is refined by the process of elimination.  I say precision because even in the realm of scientific inquiry, correctness is measured by proximity to an exact value or outcome.

There is a lot less room for self-indulgent pride in hard sciences because evidence can be easily established and quantified, contradicting previous findings at a whim.

The same cannot be said for philosophical wrongs, or wrongs associated with soft sciences.  Ambiguity tends to take center stage in these matters, and no experimental methodology could encompass the vast diversity of human thought or belief.  Soft sciences have a particular knack for confirmation bias [that is, favoring information that supports an individuals preconceived notions].

In such cases, it’s impossible to [literally] enumerate the confidence interval of an approach but it is essential to understand where your beliefs and/or findings can be flawed.

Philosophically, some cling to their biases by molding a reality that favors their perspectives, but such approaches are ultimately futile and shortsighted, particularly in the 21st century.

We are no longer a tight-knit group of nomads or hunters/gatherers that rely on culture and tradition to survive; we must acknowledge that we will, in our lifetime, be met with ideas that starkly contrast our own.

Open mindedness is not your ability to tolerate the beliefs of others.  It’s your ability to tolerate the idea that you could be wrong.

The need for introspection is imperative; it is a vital component of societal renovation.  The moral history of humanity is a progression towards inclusiveness; a steady, but continuous critique of social constructs that imprison expression so that we may rid ourselves of such wrongs.  In many ways, recognizing that we are wrong is a vital component of getting it right.

-Konstantin Ravvin

Doubt as a Complement to Faith

Posted in Thoughts with tags , , , , , , , , on December 23, 2012 by Konstantin


Faith without Doubt is unreasonable. Doubt without Faith is unsustainable. 

faith and doubt

In many respects, ‘faith’ and ‘doubt’ are antonymous; diametrically opposed concepts that are mutually exclusive and polar opposites on the spectrum of human sentience.

Faith is defined as ‘knowledge without evidence’.  Doubt is defined as ‘skepticism towards knowledge as a result of lacking or unconvincing evidence’.

Conclusively, based on their aforementioned definition, the two terms would negate one another.

The abstraction of ‘faith’, in many cultures, is perceived as virtuous; a spec of hope and resilience in the face of almost inevitable calamity.  After all, it is faith that so humbly reserves a space for the word ‘almost’ prior to ‘inevitable’, allowing for that minuscule ray of hope to flourish from improbability to certainty.

In a global society that constructs cultural frameworks under the pretense of self- preservation, faith has found a resounding place in the human psyche; a place whose pertinence is unmatched in ensuring the survival of the human race.

Faith is the sentiment by which we project our hopes and dreams into the future.

In many ways, faith constitutes an integral part of human adaptability and survival.  But there are drawbacks, the implications of which can be disastrous.  Faith is often confused with certainty as it is often used to alleviate uncertainty.  It can balloon to such proportions that it no longer has the ability to control itself; it becomes blind, self-reinforcing and belligerent towards anything that invokes doubt.

I often encounter this sort of faith in religious zealots that are incapable of compromising their faith.  So set are they on eliminating all remnants of doubt that they alienate themselves to the reality of life.

So is ‘doubt’ the antithesis of  ‘faith’?

Before the age of reason, doubt had always reserved a dreaded corner of the human mind.  It was the culmination of all the obstacles in the human mind that impeded catharsis.  Oftentimes we say ‘my heart is filled with doubt’ when we are overcome with grief and uncertainty, and unmoderated doubt is bound to produce such results.  But logically, doubt has its perks; it constantly serves to refine the standard of what is ‘acceptable evidence’ required to deem something truthful.  Doubt is the process by which we produce inquiry and thusly progress.

In many ways, faith and doubt are complementary.  Where faith serves as a hedge, albeit an unproven hedge, against uncertainty, doubt serves as a hedge against blind faith.

Doubt is the failsafe that mediates faith, ensuring it does not grow beyond its intended purpose.

As an ardent skeptic, it was difficult for me to reach this conclusion.  Doubt had always been a weapon best deployed in the event of idiocy; often encountered idiocy.  I was hasty in my generalizations: I had come to recognize faith as unbridled devotion to mad ramblings in the holy scriptures of Abrahamic religion.  I had broken my own rule.

Rule infinity: Moderation is key

Faith, in small doses, is an elixir of analgesic properties, both spiritually, mentally, emotionally and even physically.  It has the potential to alleviate burdens which are otherwise perpetuated by doubt, acting alone.  In excess, faith is counterbalanced by doubt; opposing forces that convolve to create balance, neither favoring hopeless doubt nor blind faith.

What Will You Sacrifice to be Accepted?

Posted in Thoughts on June 11, 2012 by Konstantin


The need to belong comes at a great price to our individuality and is almost always at odds with our principles

One is always most conspicuous with characteristics they find most appealing.  In a social setting, the difference between what an individual finds appropriate and appreciable and what the ‘community’ finds appropriate and appreciable is bound to lead to dissonance, that is to say, we often find the tug of war between societal norms and our own to be ever strenuous.

Some buckle under the pressure, becoming complacent, finding happiness in acceptance.  Others make it a point to be subversive, not necessarily for the sake of being a contrarian, but self-preservation.

My parents always had a subtle, if not all together reticent, approach towards the herd mentality.  Around the age of 15, I found that despite our family’s readily social nature, we’ve had sparse acquaintanceships; we warmly engaged in neighborly conversations, humored those around us and on several occasions entertained house guests, but we never made it a prerogative to be “active”.

The motive for this social ambivalence was not apparent until my own experiences had slowly sifted away copious deposits of naivety from my brain.  A deliberate attempt to insulate ourselves from the hypocrisy and malignant metastasis of group think.

I recall my experiences with “the community”: a relatively amorphous entity comprising of individuals connected through ethnic, religious, or extracurricular affiliation, the later of which is somewhat less insidious than the former two.

My anecdotes, as insightful as they may be, do not meet the carrying capacity of the wordpress community, as such, my experiences will be summed within the length of a few paragraphs:

The contempt that is bred against organized religion is purely for that very reason; because it is “organized”.  There are rules, standards, and frameworks by which one must abide.  Subordination to such norms is ensured through social shaming rather than finding commonality in belief.  Open subversion is highly discouraged and may result in expulsion and/or excommunication.  You may very well find that the “community” functions like a sentient psuedo-fascist entity reliant on adversarial relationships amongst its adherents to thrive: a modern-day Stalinist era commune in which every individual lacks trust in all of their surroundings.  Belief is hence instilled through the most basic of human instincts: fear.  It is difficult to imagine that one can respect something that they fear.

Generally, we strive to emulate that which we find successful in stabilizing our lives.  In this case, adherence guarantees stability with a dagger to our throat.
All the while, the chorus preaches: “but we are not fear, we are love; we are acceptance”.  Be that as it may, the strive for acceptance and identification is overshadowed by the possibility of rejection.  Here the sapling of hypocrisy begins to bloom, the undertones of human nature assume control and out sprouts a second face.  As new generations take the helm, they are more cognizant of the drawbacks, if not sheer idiocy of tradition, alas their elders insist and persist.

Though the urge to indulge in life is strong, they unfortunately oblige, with a slight contingency; certain rules may be bent, certain loopholes may be exploited and certain violations maybe overlooked.  In the eyes of the community, no such violations shall take place, but in the confines of secrecy, they are slowly brooding to a boil for nature does not like to be repressed:

  The preacher that condemned premarital sex yet had an affair.  

  The pious lady that attested to the glory of God before scathing her children for having “black” friends

  The prideful father who murdered his daughter for the sake of preserving the family honor.

These are all examples of the atrocities conservative communal mindsets may pose to our daily lives.  Among them are individuals who are desperate to be liberated from the shackles of hypocrisy yet fear for their own well being.  A good reputation proves to be a failsafe in the event of a fallout, but it comes at a price of sacrificing one’s individual liberty to a mindless herd.

The backlash associated with defection is far less severe for those who embrace their lifestyle openly rather than continue to live an obscure double life.